Treasure - Treasures are spent from your Hand and add mana to your pool A spent Treasure is immediately put into your Discard.
Creature - Creatures are permanents cast during Main phases and can be used to attack opponents and their Creatures. Most Creatures have summoning sickness meaning they cannot attack, or activate abilities until their controller's next turn. Creatures with Haste are not effected by summoning sickness. When a Creature is affected by summoning sickness, it has the chains visual effect placed over the card.
Relic - A permanent card that often has activated abilities. These activated abilities may perform any type of action.
Aspect - A permanent card that sometimes has activated abilities but often has effects which alter the rules of the game. Aspects can buff your cards and abilities or hinder your opponent's.
Aura - An Aspect that can enchant a permanent or player. If the enchanted permanent leaves the battlefield, the attached Aura is discarded.
Sorcery - A powerful spell that can only be cast during your Main phases while the game stack is empty. Casted sorceries go onto the Battlefield and are then moved to your Discard during the Cleanup phase.
Instant - Instants function the same as Sorceries, except they can be cast at any time you have priority, even during an opponent's turn.
Permanent Treasure - Permanent Treasures cannot be spent from the Hand and must be placed onto the Battlefield before being used. Typically, only one Permanent Treasure can be played on each of your turns.
Curse - A Curse is a negative card that is placed in your opponent's Discard. This dilutes their deck and wastes draws. Additionally, some Curses may perform an ability when that player draws them. Once the Curse is drawn, it remains in that players Hand until they discard it, or Trash it with an ability.
Bomb - Bombs are similar to Curses in that they are placed into opponent's Discards, however when a Bomb is drawn, it performs the ability printed on the card, then it is trashed.